March 22nd, 2021


Новые методы ускорения

В арХиве начинают выкладывать материалы очередной ЦЕРНовской школы по ускорителям, на сей раз - совсем-совсем вводной.

Advanced Accelerator Concepts:
M. Ferrario, R. Assmann
Recent years have seen spectacular progress in the development of innovative acceleration methods that are not based on traditional RF accelerating structures. These novel developments are at the interface of laser, plasma and accelerator physics and may potentially lead to much more compact and cost-effective accelerator facilities. While primarily focusing on the ability to accelerate charged particles with much larger gradients than traditional RF structures, these new techniques have yet to demonstrate comparable performances to RF structures in terms of both beam parameters and reproducibility. To guide the developments beyond the necessary basic R&D and concept validations, a common understanding and definition of required performance and beam parameters for an operational user facility is now needed. These innovative user facilities can include "table-top" light sources, medical accelerators, industrial accelerators or even high-energy colliders. This paper will review the most promising developments in new acceleration methods and it will present the status of on-going projects.
Comments: 9 pages

Чем отличается Альварец от Видероэ:
David Alesini
A linac (linear accelerator) is a system that allows to accelerate charged particles through a linear trajectory by electromagnetic fields. This kind of accelerator finds several applications in fundamental research and industry. The main devices used to accelerate the particle beam will be introduced in the first part of the paper, while in the second part, the fundamentals of the longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics will be highlighted. A short paragraph is finally dedicated to radiofrequency quadrupoles (RFQ).
Comments: 31 pages, contribution to the CAS - the CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics

Accelerator Vacuum:
Mike Seidel
This lecture introduces major physics and technology aspects of accelerator vacuum systems. Following an introduction, in the second section generic vacuum quantities such as pressure, gas density, the gas equation, pumping speed, conductance are introduced. Since accelerators typically have lengthy vacuum tubes, one-dimensional calculation is in many cases sufficient to compute a pressure profile for an accelerator, and methods for doing so are developed in the next section. In the fourth section accelerator specific aspects of vacuum are considered. This includes lifetime limiting effects for the particle beam, such as bremsstrahlung, elastic and inelastic scattering. Requirements for vacuum properties are derived. In the fifth section types of components and suitable materials for accelerator vacuum systems are described. Such components are for example flange systems, vacuum chambers for accelerators and the different types of pumps.
Comments: 20 pages, contribution to the CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics

Machine and People Protection:
Peter Forck
This contribution acts as an introduction to the requirements of the machine protection system. As the first step, the basics interactions of fast charged particles, neutrons and γ-rays with matter are summarized. The architecture of a machine protection system based on beam loss detection is described. Personal safety issues and personal dosimetry are discussed, including the concept of radiation shielding.
Comments: 28 pages, contribution to the CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics