Longitudinal charge distribution measurement of non-relativistic ion beams using coherent transition radiation: https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.08689
R. Singh, T. Reichert
Longitudinal charge profile measurements or bunch shape measurements is a challenge for temporally short non-relativistic bunches. The field profile has a larger longitudinal extent compared to the charge profile for such beams. This affects the ability of field sensing devices such as phase pick-ups or wall current monitors to measure charge distribution. Here we evaluate the feasibility for usage of coherent transition and diffraction radiation from non-relativistic beams for bunch shape measurements.
Кстати, обращаю внимание уважаемого mi1kyway :)