Zhongda Huang, Yihang Tong, Jake S. Bobowski
We describe a simple AC susceptometer built in-house that can be used to make high-resolution measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of high-temperature superconductors in an undergraduate physics lab. Our system, cooled using liquid nitrogen, can reach a base temperature of 77 K. Our apparatus does not require gas handling systems or PID temperature controllers. Instead, it makes use of a thermal circuit that is designed to allow the sample to cool on a time scale that is suitable for an undergraduate lab. Furthermore, the temperature drift rate at the superconducting transition temperature Tc is low enough to allow for precise measurements of the complex magnetic susceptibility through Tc, even for single-crystal samples with exceedingly sharp superconducting transitions. Using an electromagnet, we were able to apply static magnetic fields up to 63 mT at the sample site. By measuring the change in susceptibility as a function of the strength of an applied of static magnetic field, we were able to estimate the lower critical field Hc1 of a single-crystal sample of optimally-doped YBa2Cu3O6.95 at 77 K. We also investigated the mixed state of a sintered polycrystalline sample of YBa2Cu3O6+y.
Comments: 19 pages, 11 figures
Diet Soda and Liquid Nitrogen: https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.07777
Bart H. McGuyer, Justin M. Brown, Hoan B. Dang
Letter to the Editor about how the diet soda and Mentos reaction can be produced by the direct immersion of a plastic soda bottle in liquid nitrogen.
Comments: 1 page