X-ray phase-contrast imaging: a broad overview of some fundamentals: https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.05146
David M. Paganin, Daniele Pelliccia
We outline some basics of imaging using both fully-coherent and partially-coherent X-ray beams, with an emphasis on phase-contrast imaging. We open with some of the basic notions of X-ray imaging, including the vacuum wave equations and the physical meaning of the intensity and phase of complex scalar fields. The projection approximation is introduced, together with the concepts of attenuation contrast and phase contrast. We also outline the multi-slice approach to X-ray propagation through thick samples or optical elements, together with the Fresnel scaling theorem. Having introduced the fundamentals, we then consider several aspects of the forward problem, of modelling the formation of phase-contrast X-ray images. Several topics related to this forward problem are considered, including the transport-of-intensity equation, arbitrary linear imaging systems, shift-invariant linear imaging systems, the transfer-function formalism, blurring induced by finite source size, the space-frequency model for partially-coherent fields, and the Fokker-Planck equation for paraxial X-ray imaging. Having considered these means for modelling the formation of X-ray phase-contrast images, we then consider aspects of the associated inverse problem of phase retrieval. This concerns how one may decode phase-contrast images to gain information regarding the sample-induced attenuation and phase shift.
Comments: Submitted to Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics