Benyamin Ghojogh, Hadi Nekoei, Aydin Ghojogh, Fakhri Karray, Mark Crowley
This paper is a tutorial and literature review on sampling algorithms. We have two main types of sampling in statistics. The first type is survey sampling which draws samples from a set or population. The second type is sampling from probability distribution where we have a probability density or mass function. In this paper, we cover both types of sampling. First, we review some required background on mean squared error, variance, bias, maximum likelihood estimation, Bernoulli, Binomial, and Hypergeometric distributions, the Horvitz-Thompson estimator, and the Markov property. Then, we explain the theory of simple random sampling, bootstrapping, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. We also briefly introduce multistage sampling, network sampling, and snowball sampling. Afterwards, we switch to sampling from distribution. We explain sampling from cumulative distribution function, Monte Carlo approximation, simple Monte Carlo methods, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. For simple Monte Carlo methods, whose iterations are independent, we cover importance sampling and rejection sampling. For MCMC methods, we cover Metropolis algorithm, Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, Gibbs sampling, and slice sampling. Then, we explain the random walk behaviour of Monte Carlo methods and more efficient Monte Carlo methods, including Hamiltonian (or hybrid) Monte Carlo, Adler's overrelaxation, and ordered overrelaxation. Finally, we summarize the characteristics, pros, and cons of sampling methods compared to each other. This paper can be useful for different fields of statistics, machine learning, reinforcement learning, and computational physics.