The meaning and evolution of the notion of "temperature" (which is a key concept for the condensed and gaseous matter theories) are addressed from the different points of view. The concept of temperature turns out to be much more fundamental than it is conventionally thought. In particular, the temperature may be introduced for the systems built of "small" number of particles and particles in rest. The Kelvin temperature scale may be introduced into the quantum and relativistic physics due to the fact, that the efficiency of the quantum and relativistic Carnot cycles coincides with that of the classical one. The relation of the temperature to the metrics of the configurational space describing the behavior of the system built from non-interacting particles is demonstrated. The Landauer principle asserts that the temperature of the system is the only physical value defining the energy cost of isothermal erasing of the single bit of information. The role of the temperature the cosmic microwave background in modern cosmology is discussed.
А вот Тимоти Бойер, я его помню еще по статье во "В мире науки" (a.k.a. Sci.Am), он все время пишет, что если аккуратно все смотреть, то многие явления, которые мы ассоциируем с квантовой физикой, проявляются и в классике.
Conflict Between Classical Mechanics and Electromagnetism: The Harmonic Oscillator in Equilibrium with a Bath: https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.05844
Timothy H. Boyer
It is pointed out that an electric charge oscillating in a one-dimensional purely-harmonic potential is in detailed balance at its harmonics with a radiation bath whose energy Urad per normal mode is linear in frequency ω, Urad=const×ω, and hence is Lorentz invariant, as seems appropriate for relativistic electromagnetism. The oscillating charge is NOT in equilibrium with the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum which arises from energy-sharing equipartition ideas which are valid only in nonrelativistic mechanics. Here we explore the contrasting behavior of harmonic oscillators connected to baths in classical mechanics and electromagnetism. It is emphasized that modern physics text are in error in suggesting that the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum corresponds to the equilibrium spectrum of random classical radiation, and in ignoring Lorentz-invariant classical zero-point radiation which is indeed a classical equilibrium spectrum.
Comments: 21 pages