Since the initial development of charged particle colliders in the middle of the 20th century, these advanced scientific instruments have been at the forefront of scientific discoveries in high energy physics. Collider accelerator technology and beam physics have progressed immensely and modern facilities now operate at energies and luminosities many orders of magnitude greater than the pioneering colliders of the early 1960s. In addition, the field of colliders remains extremely dynamic and continues to develop many innovative approaches. Indeed, several novel concepts are currently being considered for designing and constructing even more powerful future colliders. In this paper, we first review the colliding beam method and the history of colliders, and then present the major achievements of operational machines and the key features of near-term collider projects that are currently under development. We conclude with an analysis of numerous proposals and studies for far-future colliders. The evaluation of their respective potentials reveals tantalizing prospects for further significant breakthroughs in the collider field.
Comments: 65pages including references, 42 figures
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Beam Size Reconstruction from Ionization Profile Monitors: https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.09072
Ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are widely used in particle accelerators for fast evaluation of parameters of high energy beams. Due to the space-charge effects and several other physical reasons, as well as due to instrumental effects, the measured IPM profiles differ from the those of the beams. Empirical mathematical models are commonly used for reconstruction of the profiles. Here we present proper correction algorithm based on the space-charge dynamics of the secondaries in IPMs. We also demonstrate efficiency of the beam size reconstruction from experimentally measured profiles and discuss practical aspects limiting the IPM accuracy.
Comments: 6 pages, 5 Figs