100 Years of Relativistic Cosmology (1917-2017). Part I: From Origins to the Discovery of Universal Expansion (1929): https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.03693
We are experiencing a period of extreme intellectual effervescence in the area of cosmology. A huge volume of observational data in unprecedented quantity and quality and a more consistent theoretical framework propelled cosmology to an era of precision, turning the discipline into a cutting-edge area of contemporary science. Observations with type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), showed that the expanding Universe is accelerating, an unexplained fact in the traditional decelerated model. Identifying the cause of this acceleration is the most fundamental problem in the area. As in the scientific renaissance, the solution will guide the course of the discipline in the near future and the possible answers (whether dark energy, some extension of general relativity or a still unknown mechanism) should also leverage the development of physics. In this context, without giving up a pedagogical approach, we present an overview of both the main theoretical results and the most significant observational discoveries of cosmology in the last 100 years. The saga of cosmology will be presented in a trilogy. In this article (Part I), based on the articles by Einstein, de Sitter, Friedmann, Lemaître and Hubble, we will describe the period between the origins of cosmology and the discovery of Universal expansion (1929). In Part II, we will see the period from 1930 to 1997, closing with the old standard decelerated model. The Part III will be entirely devoted to the accelerated model of the universe, the cosmic paradigm of the XXI century.
Comments: 18 pages, 10 figures. To appear in Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física (in Portuguese)
И еще тех же авторов на том же языке:
From Solar Eclipse of 1919 to the Spectacle of Gravitational Lensing: https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.01549
A century after observing the deflection of light emitted by distant stars during the solar eclipse of 1919, it is interesting to know the concepts emerged from the experiment and the theoretical and observational consequences for modern cosmology and astrophysics. In addition to confirming Einstein's gravitational theory, its greatest legacy was the construction of a new research area to cosmos science dubbed gravitational lensing. The formation and magnification of multiple images (mirages) by the gravitational field of a compact or extended lens are among the most striking phenomena of nature. This article presents a pedagogical view of the first genuine gravitational lens effect, the double quasar QSO 0957 + 561. We also describe the formation of rings, giant arcs, arclets and multiple Supernova images. It is also surprising that the Hubble constant and the amount of dark matter in the Universe can be measured by the same technique. Finally, the lensing of gravitational waves, a possible but still not yet detected effect, is also briefly discussed.
Comments: 22 pages, 20 figures, in Portuguese