Dense Matter and Neutron Stars: Some Basic Notions: https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.11876
A number of properties of dense matter can be understood semiquantitatively in terms of simple physical arguments. We begin with the outer parts of neutron stars, and consider the density at which pressure ionization occurs, the density at which electrons become relativistic, the density at which neutrons drip out of nuclei, and the size of the equilibrium nucleus in dense matter. Subsequently, we treat the so-called "pasta" phases expected to occur at densities just below the density at which the transition from the crust to the liquid core of a neutron star occurs. We then consider aspects of superfluidity in dense matter. Estimates of pairing gaps in homogeneous nuclear matter are given, and the effect of the dense medium on the interaction between nucleons is described. Finally, we turn to superfluidity in the crust of neutron stars and especially the neutron superfluid density, an important quantity in the theory of sudden speedups of the rotation rate of some pulsars.
Comments: 19 pages, 1 figure. Lectures presented at the LIX Cracow School of Theoretical Physics, Zakopane, Poland, June 14-22, 2019