Настоящая температура не может быть отрицательной
Negative Absolute Temperatures: https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.01915
The concept of negative absolute temperature, introduced by Ramsey based on the study of a nuclear spin system by Purcell and Pound in 1951, has been subject to continued debate. According to a recent analysis by Struchtrup, the apparent negative temperature states are temperature unstable states for which no temperature-positive or negative-can be defined. Ramsey was aware of the potential problem with his treatment of the negative temperature by pointing it out that the apparent negative temperature states cannot be achieved via any reversible process. In this paper, we demonstrate that the existence of an upper limit in the allowed states of the system is not a sufficient condition, albeit a necessary condition, for the appearance of negative temperatures. A thermal system cannot move into any negative temperature state via reversible thermodynamic processes. Negative temperature of a system is a direct outcome of incorrectly applying thermodynamic functions to an irreversible process.