Spatial resolution, noise and information in the computational-imaging era: https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.11797
David M. Paganin, Alexander Kozlov, Timur E. Gureyev
Imaging is an important means by which information is gathered regarding the physical world. Spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio are underpinning concepts. There is a paucity of rigorous definitions for these quantities, which are general enough to be useful in a broad range of imaging problems, while being also sufficiently specific to enable precise quantitative evaluation of the relevant properties of imaging systems. This is particularly true for many modern forms of imaging that include digital processing of the acquired imaging data as an integral step leading to final images presented to an end-user. Here, both the well-known historical definitions of spatial resolution and some more recent approaches suitable for many forms of modern computational imaging are discussed. An intrinsic duality of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise exists in almost all types of imaging, with the related uncertainty relationship determining a trade-off between the two quantities. Examples are presented with applications to super-resolution imaging, inline holography and ghost imaging.
Не Шурик ли это Козлов??? Вроде бы, он не по этой части...
Work done on a single-particle gas during an adiabatic compression/expansion process: https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.11750
We compute the average work done by an external agent, driving a piston at constant speed, over a single particle gas going through an adiabatic compression and expansion process. To do so, we get the analytical expression relating the number of collisions between the piston and the particle with the position of the piston during the process. The ergodicity breaking of the system during the process is identified as the source of its irreversibility. In addition, we observe that by using particular initial distributions for the state of the particle, it is possible to preclude the possibility of a net energy transfer from the agent to the particle during the process.