The Hellmann-Feynman theorem at finite temperature: https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.10298
We present a simple derivation of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem at finite temperature. We illustrate its validity by considering three relevant examples which can be used in quantum mechanics lectures: the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the one-dimensional Ising model and the Lipkin model. We show that the Hellmann-Feynman theorem allows one to calculate expectation values of operators that appear in the Hamiltonian. This is particularly useful when the total free-energy is available, but there is not direct access to the thermal average of the operators themselves.